The main principles of FAIR data

The FAIR data are:

  • searchable for anyone
  • have standard formats equipped with appropriate metadata and identifiers so that they can be reused and referenced, but access to the data itself may be conditioned by the fulfilment of certain conditions (e.g. signing a contract and observing restrictive contractual conditions)
  • their use is limited by the license setting the rules for data handling

Making data available according to FAIR Data principles does not mean automatically making data available to anyone. The goal is to follow the principle "as open as possible, as closed as necessary", i.e. to make data available "as openly as possible, as limited as absolutely necessary". FAIR stands for the initial letters of these attributes:


The first step for data's (re)usability is to enable those interested in finding it.

The data should be:

  • provided with metadata equipped with globally unique
  • persistent identifiers indexed in appropriate search systems


If the user finds the data, he must know under what conditions he can access it.

The approach should meet the following criteria:

  • authorized/authenticated limited, e.g.
  • based on the fulfilment of specific requirements (signature of an agreement on the regulation of access to data, etc.)
  • metadata should be available based on a persistent unique identifier using standard open protocols.
  • metadata should remain accessible even if the data itself is no longer available


For data to be (re)usable, it must be made available so that it can be integrated and processed by other applications, systems and users.

(Meta)data should meet the following requirements:

  • use standard representations and data formats used and known in the given area,
  • use controlled vocabularies and ontologies that follow FAIR principles
  • linking to other (meta)data via formalized references


Reusability is the basic goal of the FAIR principles – to enable once-created data to be reused by their authors and other interested parties.

The necessary conditions are:

  • availability of well-described data provided with appropriate metadata
  • distributed under express license
  • follow-up to a clear description of the origin of (meta)data
  • meet state-of-the-art standards and practices in the given research area (community of researchers from the field)

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